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Plantation

  • Vegetative
        Propagation
  • Planting
  • Pruning
  • Fertilizers
  • Weed Control
  • Pest Management


  • Plucking and
    Leaf Handling

    Withering

    Rolling

    Fermentation

    Drying

    Sorting


    Vegetative Propagation


    Mother bush

    Bush selected/planted and allowed to be used for vegetative propagation is called mother bush. Vegetatively propagated progenies from the cuttings of a single mother bush form a clone.


    Nucleus plot

    This is the multiplication area, maintained separately for each clone. Nucleus plot should be established at a convenient place where constant supervision is possible. The soil should be fertile and well drained. Shade is not required for the nucleus area.

    A nucleus plot has to be built up for each clone to be used by (i) using an area already planted with the clone, (ii) planting a special area with the clone or (iii) converting an existing tea area by grafting.

    A mature nucleus bush can give 50-300 good cuttings in a year. A minimum of 250 bushes must be allotted to supply cuttings for 1 ha.

    In plains vigorous bushes can give cuttings twice a year (e.g. autumn & spring ).

    Nucleus plot is manured with 2:1:2 or 2:1:3 NPK mixture @ 120-140 kg N/ha when cuttings are taken twice in a year. If cuttings are taken once in a year, 100-120 kg N as 2:1:2 NPK mixture is sufficient. Half the quantity may be applied on moist ground in early spring and the balance half in June/July.


    Takings cuttings

    a)  Skiffed primaries are carried to the propagation area either in loose bundles or placed loosely in baskets, without exposing to sun.

    b)  Clones differ in growth and flushing behaviour, which may also be influenced by pruning time, soil and climate. The optimum time of taking cuttings can, therefore vary in different clones.

    c)  Cuttings taken from the primaries should be preferred to cuttings taken from the secondary laterals developed from axillary  buds of primaries.

    d)  Technique : The stems are tested by flexing between thumb and fingers; the soft portion at the top and rigid brown portion at the bottom are not suitable. Good cuttings come from the flexible middle portion. Marginal cuttings can be used, but must be planted separately.

    e)  Tool : Anything really sharp, which does not bruise the stem and is convenient to operate, can be used.

    f)  Internode : Best to have single leaf 3-4 cm long cuttings with about 2.5 cm of stem below the node and about 0.5 cm of stem above it. Top cut is given immediately above the axillary bud and parallel to the leaf blade. Make the basal cut obliquely more or less parallel to the leaf blade. Plantings should be done soon after the cuttings are made.


    Setting the cuttings

    a)  Soil surface is pierced with a 5 cm nail or thin dibber. The hole made should be little shorter than the stem of the cutting. The direction of the hole should allow the leaf to stand nearly upright.

    b)  The cutting is inserted so as not to damage the cut point and the soil near the cutting is compressed with finger tips to eliminate air.

    c)  The soil surface should be moist and kept moist.

    d)  Shade excluding atleast 50 to 60 percent of day light is necessary at this stage - north light is ideal.


    Spacing

    i)   When setting cuttings direct into sleeves, the point of stem should be on the centre line of the sleeve cylinder.

    ii)  To produce 'pretreated' cuttings, 5x6 cm triangular serves well. The cuttings are ready when the cut bark is covered with a small ring of callus.

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