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  • Vegetative
  • Planting
  • Pruning
  • Fertilizers
  • Weed Control
  • Pest Management

  • Plucking and
    Leaf Handling








    a)  Planting programme, including decision on spacing and planting time.
    b)  Prepared land, by clearance or rehabilitation.
    c)  Supply of plants.

    Planting time

    Soil moisture is essential :

    Autumn planting, while rains moisture is still in the soil and is preserved by mulching.

    b)  Spring planting, as soon as early rain has penetrated top soil.

    c)  Planting with irrigation, protected by mulch, any time.

    Operational sequence

    a)  Cutting cover crops and keeping material for mulch.
    b)  Staking (omitting space for path and shade).
    c)  Pits/holes making.
    d)  Soil conditioning.
    e)  Planting.
    f)   Mulching.


    a)  Use stakes according to planting pattern (i.e. rectangular,contour,double or single hedge) as per the policy of the 'estate'. Ideally staking should be done before the cover/rehabilitation crop is put out.

    b)  Stakes for holding : Minimum requirement - no. of plants to be planted in 1 day*2 plus 10%.

    Factors affecting the spacing decision:

    i)  Soil - poor soil needs more plants/ha.

    ii)  Bush character - small framed clones need more plants/ha. For compact bush frame : 15000-16000 bushes/ha (upto 18500 in hilly areas) For spreading bush frame: 14000-15000 bushes/ha.

    iii)  More plants /ha can give earlier ground cover, particularly where spread is difficult to attain.

    iv)  Plucking productivity is poor unless the gap between hedges is not sufficient(minimum 105 cm). For compact frames : 15000-16000 (In hilly areas upto 18500). For spreading frames: 14000-15000

    v)  Minimum spacing between plants : 60 cm Minimum spacing between rows/hedges : 90 cm(hills), 105 cm (plains).

    Some spacings with calculated populations :

    Spacing Calculated plant population/ha

    90 cm*60 cm (Single hedge)

    100 cm*60 cm (Single hedge) 16666
    105 cm*60 cm (Single hedge) 15873
    105 cm*65 cm (Single hedge) 14652
    105 cm*70 cm (Single hedge) 13605
    105 cm*75 cm (Single hedge) 12698
    105cm*70cm*75cm (Double hedge) 17316
    110cm*70cm*70cm (Double hedge) 15873
    110cm*75cm*75cm (Double hedge) 14414
    110cm*75cm*70cm (Double hedge) 14815
    110cm*70cm*65cm (Double hedge) 16326
    110cm*70cm*60cm (Double hedge) 16806

    Soil conditioning

    a)  Top soil 30g superphosphate, bottom soil 30g rock phosphate.

    b)  Well rotted dry cattle manure : 4-5 kg

    c)  Cattle manure should be mixed thoroughly with the excavated soil. Rock phosphate should be applied at the bottom while superphosphate should be applied 5 cm below the ground level around 'bheti' after removing sleeve.


    a)  Plants irrigated in nursery, inspected and rejected if substandard. Selected plants should preferably have :
    i)  Stem thickness 0.5-0.8 cm at the base. ii)  Height 40 - 45 cm. iii)  Foliage 12 - 16/ plant iv)  Undamaged root system with soil around roots remaining intact at the planting time.

    b)  Pit or hole partly to be refilled with conditioned soil.

    c)  Sleeve aligned with stakes, placed with top at or just below ground level.

    d)  Sleeve removed from bheti, remaining soil replaced and rammed.

    e)  Levelling and mulching.


    a)   Immediately after planting, a thin continuous layer of plant material (monocot leaves are ideal) is spread over the ground.

    b)  As soon as convenient, a 5-7 cm thick layer is built up, no material to touch the plant stem.

    c)  As the layer thins out, it is topped up.

    d)  Where rice straw is used, an additional 20 kg N/ha is required, applied together with the straw.

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